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【核電真相系列】誰吃掉國家—評奧地利人的勇氣 列印 E-mail
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作者 台灣大地文教基金會董事長 楊緒東醫師   
2012-04-17

 

【核電真相系列】誰吃掉國家—評奧地利人的勇氣
台灣大地文教基金會
董事長 楊緒東

 

*粗體字為楊緒東醫師撰寫之書評


20120311 告別核電大遊行,點擊上圖可看更多照片

這篇文章是 Maria Tomchick Nov. 22, 2000 寫的報導,他認為要世人先能考慮核子發電廠的嚴重性,對於擁有可移動性核子武器國家:如伊拉克、北韓、印度、巴基斯坦、中共…反而可以暫時撇開一邊,因為這種對立的核武系統,已經引起相當的關注,彼此之間亦取得戒慎之心,但是自第二次大戰以來的核發電機,處無聲無息之中,未來會是世紀性絕滅災難的禍源,這才是值得大家探討的課題。

One Planet

By Maria Tomchick

The Real Nuclear Threat

Forget about Iraq and North Korea. Let's talk about Temelin.


由 Temelin 這個地方說起,它位於奧地利北方,離邊界50公里的地方,是捷克共和國內小城市,私人公司CEZ所屬的核電廠就建在此處,這個電廠已有20年的興工歷史,其中機組亦斷斷續續有加裝或淘汰,是與Chernobyl車諾比核電廠同一系列的設計組合而成,自從車諾比核電廠發生大災難以來,該Temelin的同系列電廠,即開始受到歐洲各國嚴重關切,以防遭受核害。

Chernobyl 核電廠於1986年失火爆炸,引發歐洲各國一連串的毒害,由血癌、甲狀腺腫、淋巴系統受損,到河川環境、牲畜、動植物的變種,這些惡夢揮之不去,故於1990年開始,國際性的調查團便多次訪問Temelin核電廠,並且發現此廠反應爐運轉不安全,為了減少反核電的聲浪,該廠所有人CEZ公司,增加西方設計的安全裝備與控制系統,以求繼續興建,希望可以早日完工參予運作,該電廠在花費巨額預算與十年的改裝,於上個月終於正式開機供電。

At Temelin, a small city in the Czech Republic just 50 kilometers north of the Austrian border, a private company called CEZ (which roughly translate as“The Czech Power Company”) owns a majority interest in a brand-new nuclear power plant. The plant has been under construction on and off for about 20 years. Its design is based on the same type of reactor that exploded and caught fire at Chernobyl in 1986. In the early 1990s, after the old socialist government fell, international inspectors visited Temelin and declared the reactor unsafe. Instead of mothballing the plant, CEZ added a few Western-style safety and control devices to the design and continued the construction. Last month, overbudget and more than ten years overdue, CEZ finally opened the plant for operation.

也就是在上個月的同時,奧地利的反核人士機動出聲,反對該廠運作,在開始的時候,並未引起廣大的回響,可是參與反核的人卻越來越多,有如核子反應的連鎖效果。

And last month, Austrian anti-nuke protesters mobilized against the plant. The protests have been going on for some time, but not on a massive scale. Not, that is, until the chain reaction began at Temelin. In this case, one very dangerous, nuclear chain reaction has caused another, very understandable chain reaction in the activist community.

故於該2000年的11月5日,奧地利反核人士完全關閉往來捷克與奧地利的通路,這是通往東歐與西歐的重要交通樞紐,有許多反核人士分別在主要幹道上設管制關卡,此舉終於引起雙方政府的交涉。

On Sunday, November 5, Austrian anti-nuclear activists completely closed the border between Austria and the Czech Republic, stranding all traffic, including commercial truck traffic on several key routes between Eastern and Western Europe. Protesters completely blocked 11 border crossings early Sunday morning and, by Sunday afternoon, closed down the remaining 4 crossings.

捷克政府宣佈不與反核者協商,奧地利政府要 求抗議者能撤退,不要包圍國家邊境通路,答應要在歐盟提出此案,做為仲裁,在德國Bavaria州與捷克相鄰的國界道路,亦宣佈要封鎖與捷克交流的國道。

Austrian Chancellor Wolfgang Schuessel met with demonstrators and asked them to withdraw, while the Czech government said it wouldn't negotiate with protesters unless they withdrew from all of the border crossings by Monday evening. As a sign goodwin, 12 or the crossings were opened to traffic on Monday, but protesters at 3 major crossings held firm, stating that they wouldn't withdraw until the chain reaction at Temelin was halted.

Eventually, the protesters withdrew when the Austrian government declared that it would block the Czech Republic's entrance to the European Union over this issue. In the meantime, anti-nuke campaigners in the German border state of Bavaria announced that they, too, will blockade the German/Czech border within the next few weeks if nothing is down to close the Temelin reactor.

事實上,這並非第一次的封道事件,在10月左右,有6000名抗議者亦封鎖15條通往捷克的道路,他們要求Temelin核電廠必須立刻關廠,停止運轉,而該廠自從運作以來,狀況連連,反應爐冷卻系統失靈,自動關機,產能不足,只有2%的發電效能。

This was not the first time that anti-nuke folks had closed the Austrian border because of Temelin. In October, 6,000 protesters with bulldozers and tractor closed 15 border crossings for an entire week in response to the start-up of Temelin. When that protest ended, anti-nuke activists warned the Czech Republic that they would be back to close the border against, if no progress had been made. They kept their word.

They have valid reasons to be concerned about Temelin. The reactor has undergone two emergencies in the six weeks since it began operations. In October, a pump failure led to a scaling back of the plant's operating capacity. Temelin has been operating at only 2% of its capacity since then. Then, on November 18, the Temelin reactor was shut down completely by its own emergency systems during a test of its reactor cooling system. As of this writing, it has yet to be restarted, although CEZ officials have said they will restart it as soon as possible.

現在德國與奧地利兩國反核人士,已經結合,要求此廠關閉,可是該廠興建已花費24億美金,而第二反應爐到2002年才能完工,反核人士更發現該廠不打算處理核廢料,連捷克環保署長與總統亦指責該公司是“妄想自大狂”,在此時此刻,各國都強烈要求捷克政府有義務與責任,去維持中歐的非核地區。

German and Austrian anti-nuke protesters have been joined by Czech activists, who have been pressing the Czech government to close Temelin for some time. The reactor has cost $2.4 billion to build to date. The second reactor is still under construction and due to come on line in 2002, so the costs will only escalate. In addition, Czech anti-nuke activists have pointed out that CEZ has no plans for waste storage. The Czech environment minister has been an outspoken critic of the plant, and even Czech President Vaclav Havel calls Temelin“megalomaniacal.”There's a strong feeling all around that the Czech government needs to take responsibility and keep Central Europe a nuclear-free zone.

在封鎖交通與國際反核聲援之下,歐盟組織正式要求檢驗 Temelin反應爐的安全性。

The border closures and protests have had some impact on CEZ. It has negotiated with the Czech government, which recently announced that experts from the European Union will inspect the safety of the Temelin reactor.

然而在經濟的壓力仍然強烈要求下,要求核電廠繼續運轉的呼聲仍然高漲,美國的公司亦持續運送燃料,供Temelin核電廠做第二反應爐的使用。

However, the economic pressures to keep it running are strong. CEZ needs to recoup its investment. Its subcontractors, too, won't be willing to give up profits; last week, anti-nuke activists discovered that the U.S.-based multinational Westinghouse has secretly delivered fuel to CEZ for the second reactor at Temelin.

後記:

"非核家園”絕對不是夢想,要享有核電必須放棄土地再利用的代價、核廢料永久佔有國土之弊,現有的方便只是為子孫留下禍害做伏筆。台灣土地小,兩核電廠相距500公里的安全隔離與週邊5~10公里的安全防護,皆是奢想。何況兩戰火氣炎炎,面對大陸的文攻武嚇,到2010年千枚M族飛彈對台。台灣建此核電廠,也許可以使得某些人炒得利益,未來將是人間大浩劫,奧、德起義而東西歐的非核家園觀念,形成非核聯盟理想,已是世界熱潮,而台灣彈丸之地,還夢想安然無事,真是白天作夢,希望還要住台灣的人,能理性面對。

(未完待續,撰於2001/04/05)


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